Faculty of Tarbiyah Study and Teacher Training Alma Ata University – In Islam, children have a crucial position in realising a Sakinah, Mawadah, and Warahmah family, because there is a teaching that pious children will bring their parents to heaven with them. Likewise, if a child is misbehaved, then the parents of the child will get the curse of Allah Ta’ala. Therefore, the relationship between parents and children is not only limited to blood relations but also related to faith and devotion to Allah Ta’ala. Rasulullah SAW once said, “When the human being dies, all his deeds are cut off, except for 3 things, Jariyah alms, useful knowledge, and righteous children who pray for their parents” H.R. Muslim, (Al-kandahlawi, 2011).
The At-Thufulah stage of development (7-14 years) is the last stage of childhood development. In the At-Thufulah period, there are two phases, called the Tamyiz Phase (7-10 years) and the Amrad Phase (10-14 years).
The Tamyiz phase (7-10 years) is the phase when children can differentiate things. In terms of the meaning, Tamyiz is the power of thought with which the child can find and determine some meanings (words). As for the signs of Tamyiz, scholars give various opinions about the signs of Tamyiz. Some argue that the indicator of Mumayyiz (someone who has Tamyiz) is that the child can understand a conversation and can answer (questions) from the interlocutor. The Tamyiz phase is the phase where a child is ready or must prepare himself to perform the role of Abdullah, as a servant of Allah SWT. Children need to understand who Allah SWT is (through tawhid) and the rules of Allah SWT that apply on earth to maintain the sustainability of human life. This phase is intended so that humans are ready to carry out their duties as adult humans who are burdened with the rules of Allah (taklif).
The Amrad phase prepares a person to become a Khalifah (representative of Allah). Therefore, the fundamental thing that must be taught is the awareness of responsibility towards all creatures, because humans are the representatives of Allah who will manage, maintain, and nurture everything on this earth. Like the Prophet Muhammad SAW, since the age of 12 he was involved in the Fijar war conducted by the Quraysh where he played a role in the smooth supply of weapons for the troops fighting. In this Amrad phase, children have rapidly developed their physical, psychological, and self-development abilities. In terms of intellectual development, at this age, the child already has the independence of abstract thinking, so the nadzari sciences or sciences that rely on strong logic, are appropriate to be taught to them. Philosophy, mathematics, physics, and astronomy can be taught to children, without leaving to teach the sciences that are dlaluri (empirical and rational). In this phase, the children need to develop their potential to reach maturity and the ability to be fully responsible for themselves. Children need training and trust to become responsible human being as a future adult. (ksr)